If you daydream about your ideal tea, the images that float to mind will mostly relate to “natural.” They will invoke some combination of freshness, aroma, healthiness, bushes in mountain mists…

Now, back to reality. You’re in the supermarket or tea store or you’re online looking for some new teas to try. Some extra images now pop up: chemicals, additives, pollution, artificial colorings, and contamination. How do you bring together the natural ideal and your practical options? What should you look for and what should you avoid?

Here are some quick answers. They may surprise you a little. The ideal assumes that natural means good. The actual is that in agricultural production and marketing it just means found somewhere in nature. You want to make sure you get the good found in nature. Legally, sand is a natural additive; that’s not good.

“Organic” is closer to real nature, but it’s too often an indicator of a large checkbook; many of the best organic farms producing small amounts of superb teas can’t afford the costs and bureaucracy of certification.

So, you need to watch out: don’t take the labels as given but be sure you have a sense of the three main determinants of natural goodness in teas: (1) How the bush is grown, (2) The leaf itself, and (3) What’s added to it.



How the bush is grown: The obvious and increasingly pervasive de-naturing of the leaf comes from chemicals it absorbs from pesticides and chemical fertilizers. Here, there are many problems. This is, of course, no different from most areas of agriculture. Cheap food means mass production means pesticides.

It is hard to offer comprehensive recommendations on how to address this. The simple answer is buy organic teas. Alas, it’s simplistic, too. The problem is that “organic” is a label that is exclusive rather than inclusive. The burdens of cost, administration, reduced crop yields, testing and inspection involved in obtaining organic certification penalize the small farmers who, ironically, are the main producers of true organic tea in China. For many, it is just not worth it.

The term “biodynamic” seems more applicable a term than organic farming. Biodynamics was a movement founded in the 1940s that took on some cultish spiritual elements. But it captures the logic of the organic methods pragmatically applied by the new generation of tea estate and garden owners and managers. In essence, it creates a closed system of recycling and conservation, built on a holistic understanding of the natural environment, community role and respect for its traditions.

These broader principles of organic production are being supported and incented by a number of programs that aim at improving the living of the communities. It provides them guaranteed markets and a price supplement that is designed to be spent on social needs. Fair Trade is the best known and, in Europe especially, the one that consumers most respond to.

[bctt tweet=”[bctt tweet=”The problem is that “organic” is a label that is exclusive rather than inclusive.”] 

The Ethical Tea Alliance and Rainforest Alliance are leading and responsible players. Many of the companies participating are forming long-term cooperative relationships with ethnic tribes and villages. They help growers afford and implement biodynamic methods and bring the teas to market directly, with no reliance on the complex webs of auctioneers, wholesalers and other intermediaries.

This makes reputation the key factor for biodynamic tea farming. It’s useful to keep in mind the incentives, not just the problems: which producers and marketers gain from making natural goodness the base of their business. Look out for some combination of Organic/Fair Trade/Alliance as a signal, though not a guarantee, of the natural.

The best sellers want to get away from the commodity trap, where they can’t differentiate their teas and are constantly squeezed on price; they want their brand to stand for something distinctive. The alternative is to be just another ingredient in another tea bag blend. The top estates and pedigree names are moving in the same direction. That’s an accelerating trend in Darjeeling, and a bedrock for the top teas of China, Taiwan, Japan and elsewhere. Alas, the reverse is true for most of the low-end bulk tea bag business.

The leaf itself: A whole market has been built on herbal teas as an alternative to caffeinated tea. Indeed, “herbal” and “natural” have become equivalent. Natural here doesn’t automatically equate to good. The flood of publications by scientists, physicians and journalists suggests that the dangers of natural herbal teas are widespread and more than occasional.

“Dieter” teas are notably dangerous, as are ones containing such ingredients as star anise, comfrey, aloe, senna, peppermint and oleander. They can become toxic in combination with each other, medications and laxatives and through oversteeping and high dosages. There have been far more product recalls and court cases for herbal than true tea.



What’s added to the leaf: Tea stands out from all other drinks and foods in how easily it absorbs and blends with other substances. This is the base for the many flavored teas that are increasingly popular. What is not obvious is that the “natural” additives cover some strange ingredients. Legally, the term means that they contain something that can be found in nature. Laboratories blend “natural” and “synthetic” chemicals to create a wide range of flavorings.

This results in misleading but legal marketing. To take just one instance: It takes 200 kilograms of fruit from Calabria, Sicily, to make one kilo of the real and rare bergamot essence, used in the best Earl Grey blends. This is definitely classier than aromatized concentrated Earl Grey additive, with ingredients of “natural flavoring, propylene glycol and ethyl alcohol.” (The promo material boasts that “This flavor is true to the tea!” That may well be accurate, alas.)

[bctt tweet=”There have been far more product recalls and court cases for herbal than true tea.”]

The most natural tea is also the best in terms of flavor. That is not surprising. All tea is natural unless it is altered along its path from the bush to the cup. The elite growers that produce artisan teas in the best terrain and climate are going to do nothing to alter it but let withering, rolling and maybe roasting and steaming bring out all its natural chemical interaction. They certainly won’t add anything other than fresh flower and fruit essences. And you won’t see an ingredient list like this storehouse of additives, preservatives and colorings: “glucose/fructose and/or sugar, natural flavorings, citric acid, green tea, sodium hexametamorphate, ascorbic acid, phosphoric acid, sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, honey, calcium disodium EDTA, caramel color, dimethylpolysiloxane color.”


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  1. Eleanor Wynn Reply

    Lovely article, Peter! I do avoid additives and have nothing against caffeine. Did not know that anise, peppermint, etc. could be dangerous combined with other things.

    Also I will try to follow up on some of your selections for Darjeelings, my favorite.

  2. Good article!

    ‘Organic’ has become a byword, or maybe an excuse, to charge more. Partly due to the extra costs and processes required in order to be allowed to use the logos etc.

    I really do feel for the smaller growers that cannot afford to go down the ‘official’ organic route, or want to jump through the hoops and red-tape that such certification requires. It’s one of the reasons I prefer to buy from Teabox… at least I know where my tea is coming from too!

    • peter keen Reply

      Hi Steve….

      I absolutely agree. The organic certification process is so fatuously complex and, in China, very corrupt. There is a fairly systematic wall aimed at impeding small growers’ exports as well. I thinkk a key element in the future of the tea market is the shortening of the gap between grower and cup. That’s the core of Teabox and a feature of the most responsive of the online sellers – who you buy from is as key as what you buy.


  3. Suzanne Naven Reply

    Great Article. Where on the spectrum of the problematic ‘Natural” teas do yours fall? I am concerned mostly about pesticides.

    Suzanne Naven

    • peter keen Reply

      The teas I get from Teabox are pure as the driven rain. Pesticides are a growing problem in the large-scale lowland farms, but not in general in the highland specialty growers. The EU is taking the lead in certification with Germany very much the pace-setter. Japanese teas seem to have lower pesticides in general. The whole issue of insects is very complex — tea needs many of them for the symbiotic chemical interactions they catalyze. There are plenty of non-chemical treatments but with at least 130 major insect-generated plant disease and damage, biodynamic management of soil and terrain matter more and more.

      I just dunno…. I keep well away from all the mass brands, just in case.

  4. What a great article. I totally agree with your point of view on Organic Certification. Mostly it is a sham. Certification does not automatically imply natural or organic 100%, it does however indicate that someone has been auditing the process of growing, manufacture and distribution to make sure that people are what they claim to be.

    Non certified however has no check done on it at all and anything could be contained within that final consumer product.

    Biodynamic is actually a farming method that has a certification structure to it and is far superior to “organic”, but I am afraid that I would have to disagree with you about Fair Trade as it does not guarantee organic or biodynamic. (My father has a fully certified Biodynamic cattle farm). It only guarantees that the farmers get a fair deal (which is not a bad thing). Unfortunately most of the time organic and fair trade together are very difficult to source.

    We do not have organic certification as a processor of tea and herbs because we are a small boutique company and at this stage cannot afford the fees. We are however working towards this so that we have some sort of certfication that is a guarantee to our customers who do not know us personally. All our ingredients are 100% natural, additive free and certified organic, because if we do not have a direct connection with the producer we have no other way of checking how it is produced and also because we want to support organic farmers rather than non organic farmers as it is the right thing to do. If we can source direct from the producer and we know they are organic we also consider stocking but make it clear to our customers that this is the case.

    The issue of herbal products is that again, anything can be added into the blend, Oleander?!!!!! Is a poisonous plant. That is why you should only purchase herbal tea blends designed, formulated and blended by qualified professionals of natural medicine like us, who know what to combine and not combine, amounts that are safe to consume, possible contraindications and herbs that are safe to use as an everyday drink and that do not need to be prescribed properly by a qualified medical herbalist.

    With regards to the healing properties of camelia sinensis, my understanding as a practitioner of natural medicine (with 20 years experience behind me) of this herbal infusion (it is a plant after all) is that is has been used for sometime in Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine as a detoxifier of poisons, of which it is particularly effective. Even more reason to make sure your tea is free of chemical residues. More recent research has found other actions which are of course jumped on and used for marketing purposes. Traditional Herbal medicine considers green tea to be a “cold” food and in some cases I would not recommend certain people drink it unless they are taught how to make it properly, what time of day to drink it and how to use the spring harvest and autumn harvest to enhance health and well being correctly.

    One “health” drink I looked at recently said Green Tea Drink on the label but when ingredients were checked it contained 0.05% green tea extract. Lots of sugar, colour, flavouring etc. One other particular brand of “Certified Organic” tea very popular here in New Zealand contains “natural flavour” which tastes anything but natural I can assure you. Another international brand (of which I dissected a teabag out of curiosity to investigate ingredients) contained some kind of weird, mass manufactured foam containing sweetener and flavour. A way of portioning those ingredients exactly for the teabag production.

    So what does the consumer do about this? Natural, organic and green tea have become words used as marketing tools and I guess that this is actually a good thing because it indicates that the general public are demanding and wanting more natural products farmed in harmony with the environment. So as long as there are people like us who are not stretching the truth and are honest about what we put into our products, eventually people learn how to spot a liar. It’s just a matter of evolution and that takes time.

    • peter keen Reply

      I agree with every word you wrote. I also endorse your view that in the end it will be the honest provider that stands out against so many of the unstoppable trends. One problem for tea is that it is not an easy crop to supervise. DNA markeing of clonals will provide a fingerprint for tracking but that won’t cover all the smallholders and also the bulk packagers chemically polishing their jasmine green.

      In my article, I may well have underplayed the herbal tea issue, only because I didn’t want to come across as sensationalizing. But there is some very scary stuff out there and it falls in the regulatory gaps between FDA and food and EPA as crop and as medical supplement.

      Picking up on your point about the consumer response to “organic’ and ‘natural’ as signaling a a wish for the best teas and foods, I think that a two-pronged approach makes sense: there is a need for ‘education’ in establishing a level of understanding of the complexity of tea chemistry and the endorsement of the intermediaries between grower and consumer who have a proven and acknowledged reputation for trust. The issue for, say, an online seller, tea house or specialty store is what are you branding? The product? The experience? The trust?

      Thanks for the response.

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